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    阿姆斯特丹市立美術館是荷蘭最重要的當代美術館,在 2004 年因設計老舊閉館整修後,展品曾暫時遷至阿姆斯特丹中央車站右側的郵政大樓,之後又以「博物館入城」(Stedelijk in de Stad)之名在阿姆斯特丹各地巡迴展覽。月前,不畏歐洲的經濟寒冬,市立美術館終於重新開幕了,這座由荷蘭克魯威爾建築事務所的首席建築師麥歐斯?克魯威爾(Mels Crouwel)所設計的新建築,光滑潔白的外表像極了超大浴缸,這項擴建工程整體而言十分成功,不但吸引了眾人的目光,更領著觀眾近距離接觸其豐厚的現當代藝術收藏。
    它看起來像個浴缸。

    看它順眼的荷蘭人,已經開始把他們最愛用的「小」﹝(t)je﹞字眼黏在這個字的後面,暱稱它為「我的小浴缸」(mijn badkuipje)。這浴缸當然不小,事實上它大得很刺眼,尤其是它平直插入一旁紅磚老建築的屋簷,更是讓許多阿姆斯特丹人看著一陣陣難過,好像那浴缸擠壓著的不是那棟走過百多年光輝歷史的市立美術館建築,而是他們的胸口。他們因此對著這浴缸般的新館忍不住搖頭,說它突兀、醜陋,稱不上世界頂級美術館的派頭。


    新建築體的外殼採用白色的特瓦朗板(Twaron)製成,光潔的外表讓它成為阿姆斯特丹市立美術館的耀眼點綴。(Photo credit:Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam)

    10年闊別後重新開幕
     
    在過往的 10 年裡,荷蘭阿姆斯特丹市立美術館(Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam)不僅從世界的舞臺引退,連荷蘭人自己都記不起這個美術館的存在,好像從 2004 年它關起展廳大門的那一天開始,它就消失褪色了,當時,1895 年落成的博物館建築已無法符合百年後的現代防火設施要求,加上建築物老舊,氣溫濕度不再適合保存與展示畫作,只好被迫關門,進行整修與改建。
     
    事實上市立美術館在這些年裡並沒有休館,它只是四處流蕩,先在阿姆斯特丹中央車站附近的郵政大樓蜷居了 4 年多,被掃地出門後,只好巡迴阿姆斯特丹各地展廳,美其名是為了「讓藝術深入民間」,說穿了是嚐盡無家可歸的人情冷暖。


    新舊元素交融的阿姆斯特丹市立美術館,參觀者要攀爬一段階梯,才能接觸館內現當代藝術的豐富館藏。(Photo credit:Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam)
     
    傲視全球的頂尖館藏
     
    近 10 年的流離,讓市立美術館付出了高昂代價,那就是它已經被善變的當代藝術圈遺忘了。說起當代藝術,人們會想到紐約現代美術館(MoMA)、倫敦的泰德現代美術館(Tate Modern)、巴黎的龐畢度中心(Centre Pompidou),而在阿姆斯特丹,旅客急著要造訪的是梵谷美術館(Van Gogh Museum),哪裡想得到這早已從旅遊書中消失的市立美術館呢?
     
    他們有所不知的是,市立美術館也收藏了許多梵谷及同代印象派、稍後表現主義與超現實主義的傑作,如梵谷的《羅林夫人畫像》(Augustine Roulin與莫內《玫瑰叢間的房子》(La Masion à travers les roses)。夏卡爾的巨幅畫作《小提琴手》(Le violoniste)更是讓人流連再三,捨不得離開。畢卡索、康丁斯基、凱爾希納(E. L. Kirchner)的重要作品都可以在這裡找到,難怪連 MoMA 館長葛蘭?洛瑞(Glenn Lowry)也不得不讚嘆,阿姆斯特丹市立美術館擁有世上最優秀的館藏。

     
    左圖:雕塑也是阿姆斯特丹市立美術館的亮點收藏之一,有近五百件,圖為賈德(Donald Judd)1989 年多彩的鋁製雕塑《無題》。
    右圖:蓋里?里特維德(Gerrit Rieveld)獨特的家具組合是設計展區的焦點。

     
    當代藝術的經典之作
     
    然而讓阿姆斯特丹市立美術館真正鶴立雞群的,還不只是這些現代藝術收藏而已,當代藝術才是市立美術館的重頭戲。舉凡抽象主義大師波洛克(Jackson Pollock)與杜庫寧(William de Kooning)的名作;紐曼(Barnett Newman)召喚著你一頭栽入的巨型藍紅黃純色畫作;馬勒維奇(Kazimir Malevich)一幅幅探究宗教之虛無與其象徵的極簡作品,當然也不得不提荷蘭的驕傲──蒙德里安與眼鏡蛇畫派,還有百花齊放的裝置藝術與新藝術,全是當代藝術的經典之作。
     
    你可以走進凝結在時間裡的酒吧,嗅聞著美術館員用阿摩尼亞小心為你保存的尿騷味;你也可以走進一個又一個黑暗的房間,體驗著影像裝置藝術家為你澆煉的各種情感。可以確定的是,你的時間絕對不夠用,你不得不一再駐足,一再回頭。

     
    左圖:克魯威爾當代性的建築設計,呼應市立美術館對於展出前衛藝術的決心,去年「超越想像」聯展,展出弗里德里希(Christian Friedrich)錄像作品《無題》。(Photo credit:Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam)
    右圖:2010 年擴建工程尚未完工之時,市立美術館曾規畫一展臨時展,以呼應建築未完成中的狀態,法國藝術家芭芭拉?克魯格(Barbara Kruger)展出作品《過去/現在/未來》(Past/Present/Future)讓印刷字母包圍了館內最大的展示廳。(Photo credit:Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam)


    女力當道
     
    重新開幕的阿姆斯特丹市立美術館,除了門前多了個大浴缸,最具跨時代意義的是它在舊館 2 樓設置的兩個特別展室,分別向兩位荷蘭仍在世的頂尖女藝術家致敬:杜瑪斯(Marlene Dumas)與迪克斯特拉(Rineke Dijkstra)。藝術界裡,女性的地位一直比不上男性藝術家,連作品的價格都遠遠落後男性同儕,市立美術館百年來第一位女館長 Ann Goldstein 上任後,終於給了荷蘭的女性藝術家一個公道。
     
    令人印象深刻的是,特展室裡作品並非兩人最知名的作品,而是最能夠彰顯她們獨特藝術氣質的系列作品。迪克斯特拉的攝影作品《Almerisa》以 20 多年的光陰紀錄了波士尼亞難民女孩 Almerisa 的成長,手法極端平實簡單,卻捕捉到了生命本身。杜瑪斯則以一系列的中東青年男子肖像《Young men, 2002-2005》,尖銳地檢視我們隱藏的偏見,原來,女藝術家的誠實與無可動搖的藝術良心,才是她們最珍貴的特質。

     
    女性藝術家迪克斯特拉(左)與杜瑪斯(右),右圖為迪克斯特拉攝影作品《Almerisa》。(Photo credit:Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam)
     
    近距離接觸藝術
     
    市立美術館令人驚喜、也令人擔憂的一點,就是你可以近距離觀賞絕大部分的館藏。你可以拍照(只要不用閃光燈)、可以把鼻子湊到大師的名作前,沒有討厭的玻璃框包著畫作反著光,入口處也沒有 X 光機檢查你的背包。但難道他們不怕破壞畫作的瘋子嗎?事實上,紐曼的兩幅畫作就曾受到同一個瘋子的毀損,他用美工刀割壞《誰怕紅黃藍?》(Who is Afraid of Red Yellow and Blue III)之後,被禁止進入市立美術館 3 年,時間一滿,他立刻又帶著美工刀割壞另一幅。
     
    是他們對自己修復的功力太有信心,還是對親近藝術的信仰太過虔誠?老實說筆者覺得還是小心點好,重要的作品還是要做隔離防護,至少可以防止一些老太太伸手摸來摸去的,簡直以為是在逛大賣場呢。

      
    麥克.凱利(Mike Kelly)回顧展於上個月開幕。(Photo credit:Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam)
     
    經費最少的頂級美術館
     
    可惜的是,雖然擁有傲視全球的館藏,歷經風霜重新開幕的市立美術館似乎只迎來一個嚴酷的冬天。在歐洲經濟危機的威脅下,荷蘭政府大肆刪減藝術文化預算,市立美術館明年度的預算被刪減了 1/6。但說起來,市立美術館每年 1000 多萬歐元的預算,根本還不到泰德現代美術館(1 億 5 千多萬歐元)與龐畢度中心(1 億 1 千多萬歐元)的零頭,難怪乎一開幕就被國際藝術圈唱衰,認為它無法與其他頂尖美術館競爭、重返往日榮光。
     
    月前剛開幕時,筆者曾去過 3 次,感覺上參觀的外國旅客並不多,多半是荷蘭人,但美術館還是天天擠得水洩不通,荷蘭民眾的藝術熱情可見一斑,景氣雖嚴酷,也不只有燒錢能取暖,只要愛好藝術的人夠多,大家互相散發光熱,也可以一起安然地度過寒冬吧!

    編輯/洪佩君

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