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    2019 普立茲克建築獎於昨日公布,日本建築大師磯崎新榮獲桂冠,同時也是歷史上第8位榮獲普立茲克建築獎的日本得主!
     
    評審團認為:「他兼具對建築歷史和理論的深入了解,勇於擁抱前衛,從不滿足於複製現狀。」普立茲克建築獎暨凱悅基金會主席 Tom Pritzker(湯姆士?普立茲克)更進一步指出「磯崎新是在西方文明仍主導影響東方文化的那個時代,第一位踏出海外、在國際間擁有建築作品的日本建築師,而這讓他的建築也被其全球公民的特質影響,創造出真正國際化的建築!」
     
    這位建築大師的建築哲學是什麼?MOT TIMES 用三個關鍵字,與你一起初步了解這位難以定義的建築大師!
    出生於 1931 年的磯崎新是丹下健三的弟子,同時也是日本代謝派運動的中心人物。曾經拿下 1986 年英國皇家建築學會(RIBA)金牌獎、1996 年威尼斯建築雙年展金獅獎!著名作品包括大分縣立圖書館、群馬縣立近代美術館、聖喬治宮體育館、洛杉磯當代藝術博物館、美濃陶瓷公園、水戶藝術館等。但若要了解磯崎新,不可忽略的第一個關鍵字應是「代謝派」!
     

    聖喬治宮體育館(1983-1990),是目前巴賽隆納最大的室內體育場。巨大圓頂及凸面窗戶,加以立面流線型的前簷,構築了穩定卻又兼顧輕盈的視覺美感。(Photo Credit:The Pritzker Architecture Prize、Photography by Hisao Suzuki)


    以 Constantin Brancusi 的作品「無窮圓柱」為靈感的水戶藝術館(1986-1990),由 56 個不同方向的三角形面板組成這座螺旋塔,其內包括了劇院、演出大廳和當代藝術畫廊三種空間機能。(Photo Credit:The Pritzker Architecture Prize、Photography by Yasuhiro Ishimoto)


    美濃陶瓷公園(1996-2002)逐漸下沉的空間設計,回應周圍山谷地景,成為地景的一部份。(Photo Credit:The Pritzker Architecture Prize、Photography by Hisao Suzuki)
     
    關鍵字1:代謝派
    由丹下健三領軍的代謝派,是 1960 年代唯一發源於亞洲建築思潮的運動,思考尺度從建築擴大至城市,強調建築與城市也應如生物般,能有機成長,避免城市老化後,必須拆除然後再興建的無限循環、大量耗損有限資源。日本知名建築評論家五十嵐太郎更評論「從全球觀點來看,日本的現代建築是從這裡才開始被定位!」身為早期核心人物之一的的磯崎新,在當時日本戰後百廢待舉、面對 60 年代土地有限、人口卻持續成長的日本,加以當時日本廢止了對於建築限高 31 公尺的限制,提出「空中都市」的想像!城市開始向上垂直延升,其中「空中都市─涉谷計畫」更以東大寺南大門的插肘木結構為靈感,結合日式傳統文化與西方都市學的思考,創造出巨大懸臂的高樓結構!「空中都市─新宿計畫」則保留舊城於地面層,新城建立於天際間,規劃出新舊城市共存的新模式。
     
    東京森美術館館長、同時也是國際知名策展人的南條史生認為,雖然這些規模龐大的城市計畫最後並未實際執行,但仍具體而微地表現在代謝派建築師的建築中,而磯崎新的大分縣立圖書館,即為其中一例。磯崎新本人也曾於 2013 年,於忠泰建築文化藝術基金會舉辦的《代謝派未來都市展─當代日本建築的源流》來臺分享
     

    大分縣立圖書館中混凝土的運用及量體比例的配置,有著粗獷主義的況味。(Photo Credit:The Pritzker Architecture Prize、Photography by Yasuhiro Ishimoto)
     
    關鍵字2:後現代主義
    然而在 1970 年代後,磯崎新逐漸轉向形式主義及後現代主義。磯崎新的第一件國際項目「洛杉磯當代藝術博物館」頂樓的桶型拱頂結構、日本筑波中心大廈的開窗裝飾、頂層的圓弧結構,都可窺見後現代主義古典元素的裝飾痕跡。
     

    洛杉磯當代藝術博物館(1981-1986)是磯崎新第一個國際項目,運用紅色砂巖作為建築立面材質。(Photo Credit:The Pritzker Architecture Prize、Photography by Yasuhiro Ishimoto)


    後現代主義是對於現代主義的反饋,認為現代主義的建築及城市面貌過於單調且標準化,因此認為歷史性的裝飾元素並非無意義。日本筑波中心大廈即帶著後現代主義的風格元素。(Photo Credit:The Pritzker Architecture Prize、Photography by Yasuhiro Ishimoto)
     
    關鍵字3:勇於突破
    其實,上述的關鍵字僅能描述磯崎新的建築輪廓,並不足以定義他。回應著磯崎新曾經說過的話:「一直以來,我認為最重要的事便是找到方法來掙脫困住自己的框架或美感意識。」例如在大分縣立圖書館中混凝土的運用及量體比例的配置,有著粗獷主義的況味;群馬縣立近代美術館一案中,純白立面及簡潔的幾何設計,又有著國際現代主義的俐落風格。若要理解磯崎新,從不被侷限,勇於批判及前衛思考,或許最能詮釋他的建築哲學,也是其獲獎的重要原因。
     

    群馬縣立近代美術館一案中,純白立面及簡潔的幾何形式設計,又帶著國際現代主義的風格。(Photo Credit:The Pritzker Architecture Prize、Photography by Yasuhiro Ishimoto)

    彭永翔

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